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What causes pelvic pain?

Inflammation or direct irritation of nerves caused by acute or chronic trauma, fibrosis, pressure, or intraperitoneal inflammation is a common cause. Muscular contractions or cramps of both smooth and skeletal muscles can also cause pelvic pain. Psychogenic factors may also cause or aggravate pain.

Common sources of acute pelvic pain

  • Ectopic pregnancy, a pregnancy that occurs outside the uterus.
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease (also called PID), an infection of the reproductive organs.
  • Twisted or ruptured ovarian cyst
  • Miscarriage or threatened miscarriage
  • Urinary tract infection
  • Appendicitis
  • Ruptured fallopian tube

Conditions associated with pelvic pain

  • Menstrual cramps
  • Endometriosis
  • Uterine fibroids
  • Adhesions, scar tissue between the internal organs in the pelvic cavity.
  • Endometrial polyps, protrusions attached by a small stem in the uterine cavity.
  • Cancers of the reproductive tract

Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome

Long-term and often unrelenting pain may cause a woman's defenses to break down, resulting in emotional and behavioral changes.